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Full text of "Hints on wartime finishing economies."

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PEED UP YOUR FINISHING OPERATIONS 




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/3/^-/^ 



1^ 



cm^ ifie ihne . . . 





tc SPEED UP FINISHING 
a,u/ CONSERVE MATERIALS 



Under existing rondilions — wlien faster production is 
demanded of all industry, and rnanufaelurers are faeed 
with shortages of essential raw materials— s/>ee<f and 
conservation heeome "musts'"* on every hand. 

This booklet is designed to aid manufacturers in 
...... ^ eliminating "bottlenecks" in finishing and to lower 

.!." ; : ^^ffts-' lbi"<1i*gJv5'f P^|Ved, piore. eflri(;ient snray painting 
practice. CiJreYwl 6li8«ft;\iavce />f .tAc >lja!4c principles 
6uibiiv<} %re; VilL*:iot^ only l»ring^ about faster, more 
ecoAcJmica^ ^^riidhri'mTt V/oto lTia*f f i^ also insure continu- 
ous speed and saving.-, in t\w future. 



Ccfyright JQ42, E. J. du Pont dt Nem^ur, (sf Cu. (Inc.) ffilmingi^n, Del. 



AN OUTSTANDING EXAMPLE 



AND 

As graphitallv illustraltMl at 
the right, the past ten years 
has seen a gradual reduction 
from S2.50 to 75c in costs of 
materials to finish a six-cuhir- 
foot refrigerator. Some of thr>r 
economies came from improved 
formulas and lower prices for 
finishes. But the biggest savings 
have come through better paint- 




ing pra<tiees , . . and it i> possible 
to lower costs further bv increased 
efficiency. Likewise, ai}v iii(lii>lry 
can save fimcandmonc\ b\ impro\- 
ing spraying technique. A>a giiid*-: 



mtecd THESE II 



POINTS FOR 



FASTER, MORE ECONOMICAL FINISHING—, 

1, TEMPERATURE OF PAINT 
2. AIR AND FLUID PRESSURES 
3. VISCOSITY OF PAINT 
4. ADJUSTMENT OF SPRAY GUN 
5. HANDLING OF SPRAY GUN 
6. TRIGGERING OF THE GUN 
7. SYSTEM IN THE STROKES 
8. UNIFORMITY OF COATING 
9. THICKNESS OF FILM 
lO. CAUSES OF REJECTS 
n. TOUCH-UP PROCEDURE 



^emfie^utii/m <y^ PAINT • 



• • 




The wrong temperature for finisliing ma- 
terials often causes a decided increase in 
cost of materials per unit finished. This 
kind of waste is doubly costly when the 
watchword of industry is conservation — and 
is absolutely unnecessary when tempera- 
tures are so easily regulated and maintained. 

TEMPERATURE OF PAINT 
SHOULD BE CLOSE TO 78° F 

riie photographs below were all taken with 
the spray gun operating under tlie same air 
pressures and with the same nozzle adjust- 
ment. The variations of fan width and 
behavior of the finish are due solely t(» 
different tem[>eratures of finishing ma- 
terials being apphed. 



sT- 




TOO COLD . . . rait^rs NORMAL... around 78° T O O WA R M . . . fxiint Uxt 

falsi' ri\((>^il\\ norf'ssitatiiif> /'; provuhs spraying ma- thin, n'suhinf^ in thin film 

hifihcr itir f treasures ami trrials that can Ih' appiwd andrrjiu isducu/'sagginfi."' 

resulting in tiiateriai wastt'. swiftly and economivully. This also u^sWs mati'riaL 

PAINT NEEDS WARMING UP, TOO! 

l'ini>hing materials and rrdutcr:^ should be sIohmI 
in a room with controlled temi>erature from 70° to 
85° F. For best finishing r^*sull^- 
spray room temi>eratures should 
be maintained witliin the same 
limits during the entire (inisliing 
prcxess. remjierature of materials 
->h<Hild be cheeked fn-epirnth. 




^A a„d f/,nW PRESSURES 




The jiressiire is on America to 
amsorii*. In the finishin*,^ depart- 
ment, this means using no more 
tnah-rinls than wcf'ssarv per unit. 

Vetuai e\|»erienee demonstrates 
ihat often twice as much material 
is used uhen (histed away on flat 
^nrf'aees throiMdi '"fojitrjnfr'' an<l 

o\t'r>[tra\ due to e\eessive air 
and thiid pressures. (See eliart 
Im'Iou.) 



HIGH PRESSURES MEAN HIGH COSTS 



This chart gra|)hieallv shows 
that correct pressures (60 Ihs. 
on air and 6 Ihs. on fluid for 
most johs) reduce amount of 
material used and thus lourr 
costs. Allow spray opera tor^^ 
only en<>u<:h fhiid to get re- 
(piired fihn thickness . . . onl\ 
enough air for proper atomiza- 
tion. (Cost Jigu res based on syn- 
thetic paint at $2.25 to $2.r>0'per 
galhtn, uith sftray gun opened 
wide for an hour.) 




$10.00 an hour 

(>(> Ihs. an air 
<> Ihs. on jhiul 

$1 1 .50 an hour 

'Hi Ihs. „ti an 
(,ths. anjlunl 

$20.00 an hour 

90 Ihs. on (lir 
15 Iffs. on jhitd 



ASK YOUR SUPPLIER FOR RECOMMENDED 



Ask a Du P(mU representative, 
or your supplier of spravin*; 
equi[»ment, to help you deter- 
mine proper pressures for [)ar- 
ticular applications. Once the 
standard is set, someone should 
be made ^'sponsible for con- 
stantly checking pressures suj)- 
plied at the gun, using a 
pressure gauge for the testin^r. 



PRESSURES 




'Wt4cc4t/^ </ V k\wj * * * 



America has declared war on waste. 
Likewise, every finishing department 
should declare war on the stick or 
spatula test for viscosity or fluid 
properties of paint. Besides being old- 
fashioned, this method is inaccurate 
and leads to waste of materials. 



SET A VISCOSITY STANDARD 
FOR EACH JOB 

Correct viscosity depends on size and 
shape of ol>j<*et, color, required hiding^ 
film thickness, speed 
of application and 
other factors. When 
the right viscosity 
is found for a par- 
ticular apphcation, 
it should be ad- 
liered to rigidly. 
Check viscosity con- 
stantly, using a 
scientifically accu- 
rate method. 



• • • 





CHECK BEFOREHAND 
TO SAVE TIME 

Controlled viscosity provides 
the spray operator with uni- 
form working conditions. If a 
shop system is set up to 
check viscosity before the 
sprayman goes to work, it 
saves his time and much of 
the human element is elimi- 
nated from the oi)eration. 



TOO THIN . . . prtMlurcs 
excessive on'i spray and re- 
jects due to safigitiftfinislirs. 



NORMAL . . . protides 
pntpcr Jan fmttem for sirifi 
and econom uid appUratiuti . 



TOO HEAVY. . . requires 
hi filter pressures, causing 
exrt'ss iraste o/ materials. 




l^//,nt,ne,a ^/ S P R AY GU N 



Today's prod Lie tioii crisis dr- 
mands maximum efficiency from 
the spray gun itself ... as well as 
from operator. By correct adjust- 
ments, the spray operator can 
not only save precious time that 
would otherwise be required in 
making extra strokes, but also can 
often make consi<lerahle savings 
in the use of vital finishing 
materials. 




^^^^^^^^^^r 

^^^^^^^^^^^^v 




LOOK AT THE SAVINGS 

RIGHT .. . one stroke lays a smooth 
and eivn layer of film, 
WRONG , . . an extra stroke is 
required beeaiise of poor *iun ad- 
justment. 

Every stroke uses up time and 
materials. So an improperly ad- 
justed spray gun costs you mono v. 
It may double your costs for ma- 
terials and use more labor time. 



INSPECT ARMS TO SAVE MATERIALS 



Defective spray patterns which \va>te ma- 
terials and cause streaks in the finish are 




oflen due to tlirt or 
dried paint within the 
spray head or air cap. 
Regular cleaning — as 
well as proper adjust- 
ment — can save you 
time, materials and 
money. Inspect and 
clean all equiimient fre- 
quently and thoroughlv. 



Jslr^e/Zm^e/SPRkX GUN 




Tiie man boliind tiie S[)ray gun 
has a lot to do with saving our 
vital materials today. He de- 
serves careful coaching in han- 
dling of the gun for maximum 
coverage and mininumi waste. 
He also deserves the time to do 
his job ri<:lit . . . not Ixing rushed. 



DISTANCE GUN IS HELD FROM OBJECT 



INCORRECT . . . too far away, 
aiiisinfi fag r>r mist which ijoasics 
nmtvridls. 

INCORRECT . . . too close, musing 
u tic let I ami ami air ripples in the 
Jinish, 

Tt is important that gun be Iield at 
the same distance during entire 
stroke. The correct distance is 
about eight inches from spray 
nozzle to surface of object— just 
about the span of thumb to little 
Engcr as shown at the upp<'r right. 



ANGLE OF GUN TO OBJECT 




K*'~^ 






CORRECT (Left) . . . gun is perpen- 

(In uhir \n --nrface for entire stroke. 

INCORRECT {Right) . . . gun is 
'r/rcWso it sup[)lies more material 
at one end of sjiray pattern, less at 
the other, causing streaks, sags and 
runs. Materials are wasted because 
llic gun is either too far aivay or 
txjo chise during most of stroke 



^*r\^^p^m{jf f)f f/te G U N • • • 




Anollicr iiii|iortant economy fac- 
tor is the reduction of "over- 
spra\"— the amount of niatorial 
which is alIo\vc<l to fall hcvond 
the points for which it is intcmlcd. 
To prcv<'nt ovcrspray, don't pull 
the trigger when the gun isn't on 
the mark. It should he triggered 
bcjffrc and aftiT v\vr\ stroke. 



THIS IS HOW TO WASTE 30% OF YOUR MATERIALS 

< )ue reason some sprav - 
men don't trigger prop- 
erly before and after 
<\<Ty stroke is l>ecause 
tliry tvhip the gun. They 
makr such rapitl strokes 
that triggering each 
stroke would paralyze 
the mii>el<*s in the hand. 

TRY THIS SYSTEM TO SAVE MATERIALS 

FIRST .. . "httfttl i.-r ///e mils *// 
(•(!( h [HI firl^morin^ the ^unwrtivaWy. 

THEN . . . spray the face of panel 
horizontally, triggering each stroke. 

After the end is "banded in,*' the 
operator can begin each stroke and 
then pull the trigger. He can release 
trigger before completing stroke, 
riiis gi\es smooth, complete coats 
with miuiuuun waste from over- 
spray. Incitlentally, corners should 
be sprayed so that both sides of 
corner are covered at same lin.e. 





^ 


^"^v ,f' 


-^ 




W-^ 


) ( 

A 


^'^^ 


15% of 1 
materials los 


he 

t here 1 


Another 15%^^ 
ost at this end 




)fi.^fein in t/ie STROKES 



• • 




"RHYTHM MAKER" 
WASTES PAINT 

A "rli\ thill maker" looks very 
graceful on the dance floor — but 
the spray room is no place for in- 
dulging these talents. It wastes 
paint and slows down production. 
Better the man who makes slow, 
careful strokes and follows a set 
pattern and [)ro(('dure. 




A study should he made to deter- 
mine the correct starting point and 
the most orderly procedure for all 
subsequent strokes on every sur- 
face or object. For example, the 
inside of legs is usually the best 
starting point on a chair. Follow- 
ing an established system is more 
efficient, and avoids wastes in 
materials and effort. 




LEARN FROM ONE 
ANOTHER TO SAVE PAINT 

\\ hen one man develops a smooth - 
working pattern of strokes for 
any particular object or surface, 
l<'l liim [lass this s\stem on to the 
olhcr fellows. W Uvn once the sys- 
tem is set, let every man use it on 
cutv stroke. Sli<k to a good 
tiling when you find it. It pays! 



10 



^ji//cijuify ^/COATING * * 



It is wasteful to apply a coating 
too heavy in one spot, too thin in 
another. This is another point 
where systematic procedure 
through improved, more cflicient 
spraying teehnicpie can save time 
and vital materials. 



COST PER 


HOUR 


MATERIALS 


MATERIALS 


iS.OO 


«5.00 


WAGES 


WAGES 


75c 


75c 




*-|fe 


^'^ 


'""i^ 


i 


I 






IT DEPENDS ON THE 
HUMAN FACTOR 

I t i> lalx- crotiomx (or riini lo ni^li 
or he rii>hed loo nnit h. riiis results 
ill waste of materials as well as 
rejects I'rotn irregular film. 

( Material cos tsl>as<'d on synthetic 
paint at >?2.25 to >^'2.7y() per gallon, 
with gun operating 1 hour. Hourly 
rate given merely as example.) 

WHAT HAPPENS WHEN 
FILM ISN'T UNIFORM 

"STREAKING" (Top) . . . Loss 
of nncrinu [fut^'f due to irre<j,ithtr 
c( toting, 

"SAGS" and "RUNS" (Boffom) 

. . . Result jnnu t(H) nuuh rnulrnul 
hcin^ sftruvcd in oiw spot. 

These arc only some of the causes 
for rejects and waste of materials 
when the coating is not unilorm. 



11 



"^/ne/^neu ^ FILM 



• • • 




It is uin'coiioniic for 111 in iliitkness 
lo Ix' t(X> thin or too iliick. Either 
way it costs time and money, as 
well as wasting vital materials. 
Use of the induction gauge pic- 
tured here is one method of check- 
ing fdm thickness at regular inter- 
vals. \\ hile not quite so accurate 
as the micrometer measurement 
id<'srrihed hclow), it is quirk and 
rorncnicnl for fre(juent check-ups. 



(pi 

HOW THICKNESS AFFECTS COST 

Correct t!iirkiir>> ol lihn fea\<'> 
money all around. If the correct 
thickness for a particular a[»pli(a- 
tion should he tuo mils, then a film 
of three mils is obvious waste of 
materials without any gain in 
durahilily. A fdm of one mil, simi- 
larly.decreases durahili I y. increases 
rejects, gives poor a|>pearaiice. 



FILM THICKNESS FOR 
EACH APPLICATION 

Ae('(»rdiii<i to vour slaiidards ol 
ap[)earance and tlurahilitv, ar- 
rive at the desired thickness of 
film for each a[»plicalion. 'J hen 
use a micrometer to estahli^h 
thickness and check it regular]\. 
{LeH) Medsitre thickness of nielal 
and Jilrn with mivntnutcr, 
{Right) Scrape <tfj filni. Measure 
nicfaL DiJJerenee is Jilm tIticLncss. 




MATERIALS 


REQUIRED 


FOR 


j^ ^ 


^^fM 


#-4> 


l^f 


^1 


m^i 


iLf- 


lu. 


3 


tf- 


Hl.. 


CmvkI Film 


fhin Him 



12 



(gr.^AMJr/REJECTS.. w 



Rejects are not '^leressarv evils." 
By systeinatieally checking on 
causes (such as placing bare hands 
on metal, illustrated at right) — 
and then removing these causes — 
you can cut rejerts down to a hare 
minimum. This will aid gn-alK in 
const'rx in«£ InMh (itnr and niah-riaU. 

START A CLEAN-UP 

CAMPAIGN AROUND 

SPRAY BOOTH 

One of the higgt'>t single caii^c^ lor 
rejects is dirt and dust drawn into 
spray booth by the exhaust fan 
which acts exactly like a vaeuum 
cleaner pulhng ihrt into the hoolh. 
The entire iinisliing area sliould be 
k»'pt spotlessly clean at all times. 
\nolher fnH|ucnt cansc is lint 

KEEP DAILY RECORD 
FORM OF REJECT CAUSES 

l:i>ti'ad of mrrrl\ lumping them all 
together, tabulate the reason for 
each indiviilual reject. Supply a 
I»rinted form (based on individual 
needs) and train the men to use it. 
This will guide you in taking steps 
to remoAt' the various causes. 




from glo\ cs and clol liini. 
men. A good prcv<'ntiv(" 
is to spray (loth with a 
of iIh" flrii>liitig iiialrii 
used. 



TJI^r^^^^^ SHEET 



1 ol \v..fk- 

' measur«" 
mist coat 
al> beiiii: 



11" 




13 



"^cnc/i-u/i PROCEDURE 



• • 




]VIan\ rejects can licioiiic eiitirciv or rcfiiiisliing the pii-ci-. Such sav - 

saleable pieces by use of proper ings are big contrilHilions today 

touch-up procedure. This will save when conservation of materials is 

the waste of materials in jimkin«j so vital. 

MAKE ONE MAN THE TOUCH-UP EXPERT 

The mo>t edicicnl method <d cvprrl at prrj»ariii<: ^urla^e-. prim- 

handling touch-up work is for one iiig, mixing and a[>pl\ ing match- 
man to become very j>n>ri<ient in ing colors, and other steps in this 
this work, lie mii-t uiidcr>land specialized proces>. 
everv step of tlie touch-up 
procedure and become pro- 
ficient in carrying through 
on the work. This w ill speed 
each touch -up job and im- 
prove tlie quality of the 
work, instead of "letting 
(ycorge do it.** assign a [)ar- 
tieular person to touch-up 
duties so that he become> 




14 



iT/^ co.^t.^ ^10 fni /torn /fJt 
in ft te tiff/ ff/fJiiP . . . 



11 a inodrrn >[>ra\ gun is <>|)rrir<l uidr tor 
an lioiir, it will sprav altoiit SlO.OO \sorlli 
of nialt'rials (based on svulht'tic paint al 
$2.25 to S2.50 per gallon). Willi (.tlur 
type materials, this <(>st nii^rlit run up a-« 
high as S2o per hour. 

Ohvion.slv . anN ini|>ro\ i incnis in s[ira\ - 
ing tcchnitpie and oprraling prarti(<'s 
which aid in reducing the annMuit of 
materials s[>ray<'d jx'r unit, will rul <iown 
on lirne required for finishing and lower 
[tainting costs. That's win it i> wise, in 
every hnishing o[»eration. to . . , 




(. 






1. Temperature of Paint 

2. Air and Fluid Pressures 

3. Viscosity of Paint 

4. Adjustment of Spray Gun 

5. Handling of Spray Gun 

6. Triggering of the Gun 

7. System in the Strokes 

8. Uniformity of Coating 

9. Thickness of Film 
10. Causes of Rejects 

1 T. Touch-up Procedure 



^ hile the principles outlined hc*re 
are general — and no attempt has 
been made to ap{)ly them speelli- 
callv or in detail to all rnarnifae- 



turers' finishing proldems — they 
will iio a lonji wa\ t<»wards spwd- 
iHi,' it[) finisliinii ofn^rdtions . . . 
(itiil Itnnrinii y<ntr pd'uitina msls. 



^9 



•tCG.u.s.PAT.orr. 



Ivl. Du PoHT DE Nemours & Company (Ihc.) 

Ffnisfies Division ... Indy$irial Sales 



WILMINGTON 



DELAWARE 



BRANCH OFFICES 

ATLANTA, GA. ... 619 PeochtrM Si., N. E. 
BOSTON, MASS. . . 1019 Commonwealth Avo. 
CHICAGO/ILL. 2100 Elston Avo. 



DALLAS, TEXAS ..... 2B12 Goiton Avo. 
PHILADELPHIA, PA. . . 1616 Wolnut St. 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAUF. ... 235 Socond St. 



MmW in U. S. a.